African Journal of Advanced Sciences and Technology Research https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr African Journal of Advanced Sciences and Technology Research (AJASTR) en-US editorial@afropolitanjournals.com (Dr. Francis Alabi) devtracts@gmail.com (Developer) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 16:41:08 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Comparison of Various Exponential Smoothing Models and their Significance in Modern Time Series Forecasting https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/286 <p><em>Exponential Smoothing model is one of the most used forecasting models in modern time series forecasting. This is a technique which is applied to time series data particularly with seasonality, used to yield smoothed data for presentation and or to make forecasts. Exponential smoothing models have been found to be amongst the most effective forecasting models mostly used for linear seasonal data series. It is made up of three types namely Simple exponential smoothing (Type I) which is used when the time series has no trend, Double exponential smoothing (Type II) which is used in handling a time series that displays a slowly changing linear trend and the third is winters’ exponential smoothing method (Type III), used in predicting seasonal data. It is a powerful forecasting method which can be used as an alternative to the popular Box-Jenkins ARIMA methods. It also produces accurate and reliable forecasts which predict for the future. The forecasts show projected and actual demand which allows demand planning to be done effectively. The better the analysis of the main characteristics of the time series, the more accurate the exponential smoothing forecasts are likely to be. Exponential smoothing is easy to understand and apply; what is needed in this method are the forecast for the latest time period and relevant parameter constants such as , and&nbsp; &nbsp;which are associated with the level, trend and seasonality respectively.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammed Salisu Alfa, Ahmed Ibrahim, Mohammed Idris Umar (Author) Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Salisu Alfa, Ahmed Ibrahim, Mohammed Idris Umar (Author) https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/286 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Structural and Optical Study of Lithium Doped Sulphur Supported Reduced Graphene Oxide (LiX:S-rGO1-X) (0.4≤X≤0.6) Composite Electrode for Optoelectronics Applications https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/287 <p><em>The goal of this study was to developed a conducting Lithium doped sulfur supported reduced graphene oxide composites using hydrothermal reduction technique approach that allows the presence of different weight concentration of Li ion in network of supported reduced graphene oxide for application as electrode material. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV Spectrometry analysis were each used to evaluate the produced composites. From the findings, it was possible to predict that the presence of a nano-size additive Li in the network of the S-rGO composite significantly improve the charge transport and dielectric characteristics of the material at the percolation threshold. The optical energy band gaps for S-rGO, Li<sub>0.4</sub>:S-rGO<sub>0.6</sub>, and Li<sub>0.6</sub>:S-rGO<sub>0.4</sub> are, respectively, 3.4 eV, 3.5 eV, and 3.6 eV. These values are optimal and favour achieving the threshold voltage for optoelectronic and energy storage application.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. Alpha, Idris .M. Bako, A. Z. Ngari, T.O. Daniel, Umar M. Muhammad, Muhammad Ja'afar, Idris .A. Sulaimon (Author) Copyright (c) 2022 M. Alpha, Idris .M. Bako, A. Z. Ngari, T.O. Daniel, Umar M. Muhammad, Muhammad Ja'afar, Idris .A. Sulaimon (Author) https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/287 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Least Squares, Ridge, Lasso and Principal Component Regression Algorithms https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/285 <p><em>Least squares and other traditional statistical methods are widely used for fitting predictive analytic models. However, the methods have a number of limitations that can lower the predictive accuracy of the models. The study considered a typical dataset with two main objectives. First, to fit four predictive models by applying least squares and three trending machine learning algorithms - ridge regression, lasso regression and principal component regression and second, compare their performance. The methods were assessed using 5-fold cross validation technique. The result revealed that principal component regression outperformed the others with minimal mean square error of -7.55E+21. This suggested that principal component regression would perform optimally for building predictive model for the related dataset.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Agu S. C., Ugah J.O., Ajaero G. N., Ibegbulem C. A. (Author) Copyright (c) 2022 Agu S. C., Ugah J.O., Ajaero G. N., Ibegbulem C. A. (Author) https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/285 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Phytochemical and Trace Metal Elements in Medicinal Plants Obtained in Girei Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/288 <p><em>Phytochemical analyses, heavy metals composition of Tetrapleura tetraptera, Euphorbita hirta and Sida acuta were carried out with a view to investigate the levels of essential elements in the plants parts. Qualitative phytochemical analyses showed the presence of Alkaloids, Saponnins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Glycosides and Terpenoids, however Resin and Steroids were observed to be absent in all the plant part and among the three plant species. The Mineral analyses indicate moderate concentration of Zn (0.44mg/kg) in Euphorbita hirta stem bark and high concentration of Mn (1.21mg/kg) in Euphorbita hirta leaves and concentration of Pb (0.38mg/kg) were found in Sida acuta bark, sida acuta root and Tetrapleura tetraptera root while Cu (0.27mg/kg) recorded the highest in concentration in Euphorbita hirta bark compared to all other plant extracts, in similar case Cd was observed to be absent in all the plant extract in all the three selected Plants species. The analysis of variance shows that the heavy metal elements have significant concentration on the plant samples (P-value=0.00) while the availability of many plant samples have a significant impact on the concentration of the heavy metal elements (P-value=0.03). The presence of the elements like Mn, Cu, Zn in the plants has tremendous health benefits to humans. In view of the importance of these medicinal plants, it is recommended that cultivation and monitoring of these plants be done regularly to ensure their availability and safety for food and medicine. This would serve as a source of income and prevent them from becoming extinct.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dearsley, O., Omar Abdullahi Wafudu Handy, Maspalma, Stanley Wilson (Author) Copyright (c) 2022 Dearsley, O., Omar Abdullahi Wafudu Handy, Maspalma, Stanley Wilson (Author) https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/288 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Agro-Chemicals in Agriculture for National Development for Food Security https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/296 <p><em>Chemistry has been, and for the foreseeable future will remain, extremely important for crop protection. Control of fungal pathogens, insect pests and weeds is crucial to enhanced food provision. Agrochemicals, as the name suggests, are used in agriculture to facilitate plant growth and protection as well encouraging more people to become farmers. As world population continues to grow, it is timely to assess the current situation, anticipate future challenges and consider how new chemistry may help meet those challenges. In future, agriculture will increasingly be expected to provide not only food and feed, but also crops for conversion into renewable fuels and chemical feed stocks. This will further increase the demand for higher crop yields per unit area, requiring chemicals used in crop production to be even more sophisticated. Chemistry forms an integral part of in agriculture often aims at preserving or increasing the fertility of soil, maintaining or improving the agricultural yield, and improving the quality of the crop. Chemistry deals with compounds, both organic and inorganic, and agriculture deals with the production of organic products using both organic and inorganic inputs. Thus the aim of this study is to point out different chemicals used in today’s farming system. To point out the importance of agro-chemical in modern farming, also, to encourage more people to go into agriculture.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Omar Abdullahi Wafudu Handy, Amina Ibrahim, Omar, Mohammmed Isa (Author) Copyright (c) 2023 https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/296 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Pair Fully Fuzzy Matrix Equation in Medical Diagnosis under Fuzzy Environments https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/301 <p><em>In this paper, patients with current states and recovery state have been solved simultaneously to show the rate at which the malaria fever and viral fever reduced in the patients. The patients with current states and recovery state in the field of medical diagnosis can be made using fuzzy kronecker product, vec operator, associated linear system and pseudo inverse. Examples are illustrated to verify the proposed approach and the obtained results are discussed.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muminat A. Ajibade, Hassan Adamu Alfaki, Muhammad Kabir Dauda, Nasiru Tijjani Zakari (Author) Copyright (c) 2023 https://publications.afropolitanjournals.com/index.php/ajastr/article/view/301 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000